Theory Guides

The main governing principles of wine making are cleanliness, natural biological stability and use of natural biological ingredients. The Theory Guide explains how to choose and balance wine components with minimum additives.


The acidity of wine is one of the crucial factors that gives body and balance to finished wine. It is perhaps made an even more significant factor given that obtaining the right acid concentration is the most powerful natural preservative in wine. The wine acidity playing a key role in guaranteeing the dominance of the wine yeast in fermentation, since most micro-organisms competing for the nutrients contained in the future wine are at a significant disadvantage under such acidic conditions.


Sugar is equally important for wine making as acidity. Both sugar and acidity are key factors in the wine fermentation process. Insufficient amount of sugar will limit fermentation process and will not let wine fully develop. If acidity gives body to finished wine, then sugar is responsible for the final alcohol content and the level of wine’s dryness or sweetness, which means that sugar technically controls the taste of the wine.


Yeast is an aerobic micro-organism, meaning that it requires oxygen for its metabolic activity. However, yeast is a “facultative anaerobe,” which indicates that it can still thrive in the absence of oxygen through the usage of a slightly modified metabolic route. This is the route that leads to yeast fermentation as we know it. We can conclude that the presence of oxygen is counterproductive, because if it is present, then yeast will also metabolize alcohol.

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